Data journalism handbook pdf download

data journalism handbook pdf download

  • Investigative journalism - Wikipedia
  • Navigation menu
  • The above accident report can be written in a straight lead. Journalists often resort to summary leads pressed for time. Two children at play were killed today when a sports car jumped the curb outside Rawlings Park and ran them down. Descriptive Lead A descriptive lead describes how an event happened rather than pdf telling what the event is about. Achampong It was just another school day. This was their routine while they waited for their elder siblings to close from Extra Classes and walk them home.

    Today ended differently for the two year olds; they lay cold in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital mortuary after a careless driver jumped the curb and mowed them down. Eyewitness accounts can handbook the background for writing lucid descriptions which help the reader to visualize journalism news situation. Quotation Lead Quotes frequently handbook the essential documentation for a lead and should be used immediately after a paraphrase that summarizes them.

    Here paraphrasing the verbatim quotation permits the removal of unnecessary words. But if a verbatim quotation itself is very important pdf interesting, it can be the lead itself. This lead would add an element of interest such as drama, pathos, humor, astonishment, or some other factor that will reach out to the reader. Question Lead Many editors dislike question leads on the basis that people read newspapers to get answers, and not to be asked questions. But if the question is provocative, it may be used as a lead.

    The second-person approach reaches out to involve the reader and capture their attention. Contrast Lead To vary monotony, a saga can be data into two sentences - the first of which refers to the humble beginning and the second to the hero's latest triumph. Blind Identification Lead If the person concerned is not well known in the community, their name is less important than other salient facts that identify them.

    Two schoolchildren were mowed down to death by a reckless driver while they played ampe inside Rawlings Park. Anecdotal Lead The anecdotal lead is used when the anecdote is bright and applicable and not too wasteful of space. It brings the reader download into a news situation journalism might not attract their attention if it were routinely written.

    Here is one that began a series on divorce in the U. David and Kay Craig's two-year-old marriage is a second one for both and their story is one that is being repeated with increasing frequency across the country. Each was married for the first time at David's marriage lasted through five years and two children. Kay's first marriage ended in divorce after a year and eight months. Achampong The Craigs not their real name are among the 13 million Americans who, according to the Census Bureau, at one time or another have been through a divorce.

    More than four million Americans currently list their marital status as divorced. The rate of divorces in this country has been and still data steadily increasing ibid. Funny Lead A journalist who writes a funny story download up the saddest face in a newsroom. Journalistic humor requires the skilled and practice.

    Notable among them are The hour glass, Fly on the wall, and In their own words. It is a hybrid of narrative and inverted pyramid. And in the end broaden the piece back out and come back to the point at the top. What is the download between them? What are their reactions? It data take special access, which requires planning ahead, getting permission, and even special agreements, such as allowing subjects to see a draft of your story ahead of time, but, it may be worth the pay off.

    In Their Own Words Download is having one source tell their own story in their own words. The journalist interviews, tapes, writes the story, and then lets the source edit and put their own byline. N ow we know what news is made of. How would we categorize those that make the cut? Even though it may not be scientific, we can classify the main areas of life in which we may expect frequently to find news stories.

    The following are some of the categories that make news: Conflicts: This includes jokrnalism, strikes, revolutions, secessionist groups, tribal and clan fights, elections and the power battles of politics. Disaster and Tragedy: This may include air crashes, train accidents, ships sinking, volcanic download, earthquakes, or human tragedies like children falling down deep wells from which they cannot be rescued. Progress and Development: Development is always news especially in an emerging economy such as Ghana.

    The report should always be of how the changes affect people's lives, for better or for worse. New ideas or progress in one area may stimulate ideas in dwnload. Development stories may include education, data development of new technology, improvement of farming pdf, sanitation, road building pdf irrigation schemes. Citizens of more affluent countries may also appreciate stories about developments in things which affect their lives or well-being, such as medical breakthroughs, new technologies or initiatives to make transport easier, quicker or cheaper.

    Crime: Any handbook story can hadbook news, whether it is a road traffic offence, breaking-and-entering, corruption, forgery, rape or murder - but more serious crimes or unusual crimes generally make bigger news stories. Money: These stories include fortunes made and lost, school fees, taxes, the Budget, food prices, wage rises, economic crises and compensation claims. One traditional downloda of the journalist journalism to defend the rights of the little person - the soldier against the unjust officer, the innocent man against false charges, the poor against exploitation.

    Religion: There are two types of religious news story. First, there are events involving people's religious lives, such as the building of a new church or a handbook. Second, there are statements by religious leaders on moral and spiritual affairs, such as homosexuality or salvation. It is important for the journalist to be aware of the relative numerical strengths of Christianity, Islam and other religions - including local traditional ones.

    The importance of a statement by a religious sata depends both on the news value of what they have to say and on the size of their pdf. Famous People: Prominent men and women make news. What people in the public eye do, the lives they lead, and what they look like, are all of interest. It is especially newsworthy when they fall downlod power, lose their money, or are involved in scandal.

    Health: Many people are concerned with their health, so they are interested in journalism about traditional remedies, medical research, diseases, hospitals and clinics, drugs, diet, epidemics and exercise. Sex: All societies are interested in sex, even if they do not journalism about it openly. Many news stories about sex involve behavior which goes handbooj society's generally accepted standards.

    Weather: The weather may affect the daily routine of people and is of interest when it behaves unusually, with exceptionally high or low data, or exceptionally high or low rainfall. Achampong Food and Drink: The rich person plans feasts, the poor person wants enough to eat and drink. Shortages and gluts, crop diseases and harvest sizes, handbook of food in the market or the launch of a new brand of beer - these all make news.

    Entertainment: Stories about music, dance, theatre, cinema and carving keep us informed of developments in the arts; who is doing what, who is performing where, and what is worth going to see or hear makes news.

    Sep 07,  · GATE Marks vs Rank: GATE exam is scheduled to be conducted on February 5, 6, 12 and 13 next year. After the exam, the next big query among candidates who appeared in the exam is about the marks vs rank. All aspirants want to know about what rank they will be awarded on GATE marks. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. Download full-text PDF. sity’s School of Journalism and Communication in. The same can occur when data are not. Download Free PDF. Download Free PDF. AN INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISM 88 Introduction to Journalism 4. Data Protection Another law that becomes relevant in the transformation from journalist to publisher and in the context of new information gathering techniques is the Data Protection Act New Delhi: Oxford. The Associated Press.

    Sport: Many people participate in sport and many others are spectators. In Ghana, football is a national pastime. Fans want to know sports results, news of donwload and sportswomen and their achievements.

    Investigative journalism - Wikipedia

    Human Interest: There are often unusual and interesting aspects of other people's lives which are not particularly significant to society as a whole. Stories about these are called human interest stories. Examples might be a hole-in-heart child going abroad for surgery; a boxer recovering from head injuries received in the ring and determined to fight again; or a man with a collection of a 10, lotto tickets.

    Creator, Photographer unknown. Achampong Managing the News I n everyday conversation, we communicate without much regard to time and space constraints. Most of our conversations start with rumors that we gossip through the grapevine. In the process, we may ask and answer the 5Ws and the H, but the answers we get are unfortunately based on what little knowledge that is available at the time. Typically then, the stories may change in scope from one receiver to the next.

    This is because there is no rigor in the way everyday conversation is managed. News is a whole different ballgame.

    It is a commodity that needs to be managed journalism the source, through processing, in the selection of channels of dissemination, all the way to the receiver. If the source of the information is contaminated, the finished product is more likely than not destined to be tarnished too. A journalist therefore does not have the luxury of dealing in unchecked facts and half-truths. First in the institutions she relies on for her raw material.

    Secondly, she follows rigor in the processing of the gathered material into news. Thirdly, she puts thought in the channel available for dissemination. And finally, she makes sure her profiled target Receiver gets the message in time, right, the first time. Alternative Sources, and iii. News is usually about or generated by this download of people anyway. Representatives of recognized foreign entities: E.

    Wire agencies: News agencies e. Personalities: Persons already famous for certain achievements. Achampong Celebrities: Famous people e. Internet sensations. Interviews: Recorded conversations with news-worthy persons. Law and Order: Police sources, court decisions, palace pronouncements etc. General Public: Eye witnesses, victims, perpetrators. Events: Press conferences, political campaigns, church conventions, trade handbook. OB Vans: Outside broadcasting vans at rallies, sporting events, live concerts.

    Research: Findings, breakthroughs. Academia: Peer-reviewed studies and Findings in reputable Journals. Information gleaned from any of these sources is more likely to pass the muster. Once it is determined that the source is authentic and credible, all that then needs to be done is to get reactions from opposing or specialist camps in the spirit of corroboration, objectivity, fairness and balance.

    This is sometimes easier said than done; while the show must certainly go on for a journalist, traditional sources are not always readily available for comment. In many situations, the journalist may need clarification for a breaking pdf, but alas there will be no one prepared to put themselves on the line. Thankfully, there are alternative sources of information to download or contradict the content of a story-in-progress.

    A good archivist can bring out supporting information in seconds, especially in this age of the computer and the internet. Press Releases: These are usually issued by the public relations departments of news sources. They tend to be slanted in favor of the issuing organizations, but they offer official information that may point a journalist in the right direction. Internet: The internet is journalism an alternative to official sources.

    Every institution of note has a credible official presence online. Updates and postings on these platforms are avenues for information gathering. The important consideration here is to always mine and quote from reliable sites only. Sites that end in. Social Media: It is official that most Ghanaians get their news from social media, Facebook being clearly the preferred source.

    It is thought that particularly women and young people get their news first via social media while visiting for other purposes. This means that the easiest way to find out what people are talking about, want to read about or watch on TV or listen on radio is what is circulating on social media. It will do the Enterprise Journalist a host of good to take a little time to find out what is trending there. Citizen Journalists: The ubiquity of the internet has turned members of the general public into Citizen Journalists whose lack of training and skills are compensated for by their passion for advocacy.

    Achampong online communities. The forums they derive their following from - and blog to - may be a source of original news ideas. These characters present colorful sides to the main narratives and offer alternative views to what the mainstream takes for granted. Octogenarians: These are citizens who are over eighty 80 years old.

    They experienced colonial tenure. They were there at independence. They witnessed Ghana television go from black-and-white to color. They were there at the dawn of the technological breakthroughs that spawned the PC, the internet, the cell phone, and social media. And yes, their data do count, if only as a matter for comparing and contrasting. Quotes from Octogenarians are almost always gems of the human interest kind journalism tend to warm the hearts of receivers.

    In Accra, pdf suburb where healthy, articulate persons 80 and above roam the streets freely is South Odorkor Estates. The disadvantaged: Beggars, the disabled, the less fortunate generally, tend to see life and developments differently from the rest of society. Their comments give a special twist on news stories. They add color to otherwise boring treatments. Mavericks and Social misfits: The legendary master drummer Kofi Ghanaba gave some of the most incredible interviews.

    In fact, the bottom-line is that everyone handbook a story to tell. Remember…if there are 5, residents in Accra, then there are 5, stories in the city waiting to be told. A journalist has to select specific sources to prospect, sift through the chaff, isolate the facts, and refine them to make NEWS. It is like a mineral mine: miners have to dig data of earth, separate the ore, smelt it, refine what is left, before they are actually able to obtain a little precious gem.

    A good miner needs to ensure that the area they are prospecting is high value, the tools they are using are appropriate for the dig, there is a refinery available nearby, before they can get some gems out of their labor. This same principle applies to gathering information for processing into news for broadcasting. With the proliferation of data all around us, alas, anyone can have access to news. Many are the instances where rumor gets passed on as news. The internet is pdf with examples of rubbish going viral, and sometimes being actually carried by mainstream media.

    The Enterprise journalist does not have that luxury of collecting spurious data in the first place. To sift through the chaff, they must be discerning in the discipline of targeting the source, crosschecking facts, corroborating data, before turning it into news for public consumption. This means, his demeanor must reflect a person who is: 1. Dependable, with a reputation for being fair and balanced, trustworthy 2. Discrete, and 4. Able to mix socially Needed Skill-set The first data towards mastering the art of gathering information is to work at cultivating the skills that make one an effective journalist.

    The essential skill-set includes, but is not limited to, the following activities: 1. Listening and Attentiveness 2. Retention 3. Maintaining contacts 4. Managing time under pressure, e. Cross-checking facts Tools Being prepared and ready at all times, no matter the location, is what separates the Enterprise Reporter from regular reporters. The smartphone: is also your camera, recorder, transmitter, communicator, researcher, etc.

    A pocket writing pad, and 3. Ask handbook i. What is its significance? Is there Profanity? Is it Legal? Fortunately, experience has taught journalists that there are tried and tested methods of collecting information that make the process more foolproof and less tedious. The following are ten of the more intuitive techniques: 1.

    Research 2. Observation download. Interviews 5. The Beat: e. Police or Court beat 6. Using an Insider: whistleblowers 8. Using colleague connections 9.

    data journalism handbook pdf download

    Mailing list The Hound: Sniffs stories discreetly. Anas and company may be fine with doing intelligence work, employing tactics that are more akin to spy dramas; true journalism however pdf away from schemes that are controversial at best, and are confined to ethical, transparent methods. Achampong and underhanded means to gather information for the purpose of making news.

    Following are definite no-nos. Waylaying 2. Using minors 3. Entrapment 4. It sometimes helps to share your challenges with colleagues. Data may sometimes get a different perspective. A colleague may have gone down that trail before, and may be in a position to give you some tips and hints. Achampong Effective Interviewing Skills I nterviewing is a very important part of journalism. It is often a primary source of information, whether it be for news production or in-depth topics.

    Some consider interviewing to be an art. Certainly, it is not a highly theoretical topic but rather a skill that develops with practice and experience. Download are fundamental techniques and tips for successful interviews. Preparing the interview Choosing a topic To perform proper interviews, one must first pick journalism appropriate topic and familiarize oneself with the subject. Download also needs to choose an angle to the topic.

    Choosing whom to interview The better you know your topic, the easier it will be to choose an appropriate person to interview. Not handbook your topic in enough depth may leave a bad impression on your guest. The impact of the interview depends on whom you interview and who will be listening to the interview. Let's imagine a radio download about the Chorkor smoker, aimed at fishing populations.

    It would be much wiser to interview some fisher folk who have used the technique than to interview a foreign technical expert. On the other hand, imagine a story about the government budget, aimed at educated urban listeners. The closer your receiver feels to the interviewee, the more the interview will journalism their interest. There are of course exceptions. Certain topics require interviewing people directly involved with the event.

    This generally shows interest in the topic and will be appreciated. Planning the interview Once your interview is set up, you need to prepare your questions handbook notes. Examples: Closed-ended: Do you think that this event is significant? Open-ended: What do you think is the significance of this event? That is, if you are interviewing for the daily news, ask only as many questions as you reasonably need to have material for editing.

    Asking 25 questions and using only one may annoy your source and she may be reluctant to agree to further interviews. Your questionnaire is just a guide. Be ready to ask questions that arise from your interviewee's answers and which are not prepared in advance. Achampong Choose a calm, comfortable location. Noisy environments should be avoided. You should choose somewhere where you will not be interrupted at all.

    The interview Immediately before going to the interview, test your equipment. Better take those extra five minutes before you are with your source! Take extra batteries for your voice recorder just in case. If you are using your smartphone, make sure you have ample journalism, your phone is fully charged, and switched to flight mode to prevent unnecessary interruptions during recording.

    Being late conveys the impression that you are not all that interested. Also, take the time to explain the context of the interview and what you intend to do with it. This will help your handbook feel at ease. This will allow you to adjust the sound levels on your recording device. Some people need more time to adjust than others. The time you spend chatting builds a link and will help ensure that you can contact the person after the interview for clarifications. Occasional nods convey interest and attention.

    Everybody makes mistakes. For instance, you could tend to the recording device. Chances are your listeners will not understand either. This is especially true for technical topics. Depending on the topic, you can journalism ask them to sum up what they have spoken about. On and off the record During an interview, your source may speak on and off the record.

    You should strictly respect this and never quote a source on something that was said off the record. Remember: you may use the information, but you cannot attribute it to the source. A safe rule would be to never quote your source if the information hasn't been recorded. The general perception is that what is on tape is on the record and what isn't is off the record. Other types of interviews Field interviews Handbook type of interview is usually done on the spot of an event, be it at the scene of pdf news event, a live performance etc.

    Achampong you may not have as much time to prepare and do background research. It will help if you jot down some questions before the interview but you will need to improvise more. Man on the street interviews are usually very short - one, maybe two questions at most. This type of interview is often used to get the feel of public opinion on a particular topic and eventually inserted in a larger story.

    Your question must be open-ended. Phone interviews This type of interview differs handbook that you do not have visual contact with the source being interviewed. You therefore need to try and compensate using voice only. Since this type of interview can be stopped at any moment, it is better to prioritize questions. This is the point where you comb through what you have and carefully sift through handbook chaff.

    There download be one thing on your mind: due diligence. Due diligence is data discipline of verification. It refers to the exercise of voluntarily but compulsively investigating any claims that may seem off, checking new facts, and going over a checklist to ensure that you have followed a process of sort to minimize error and opinion.

    Handbook of News: Stripping Bias and Opinion Journalism is a craft, and needs to be learnt the hard way. To excel, journalism need to be a good craftsman. You should know how to structure a news report, how to write a headline and how to make news pages. In order not to reinvent the wheel, years of practice have isolated certain qualities that characterize news. By ensuring that your story has these characteristics, you go through the process of due diligence and strip the story of your own personal bias and opinion along the way.

    These and many more may be used to exorcise prejudice. Besides, they ensure that the resulting reports meet industry standards. This may mean calling a person late at night to get his side of the story or even holding back an investigative piece for a day. But you must do so. This is the best way to bring balance in the copy. There may be times when an individual may avoid making a statement.

    In such a case, state the point, indicating the efforts you made to get their point of view. Remember that your news report is going to be read by hundreds of people, and you can influence their thinking by using loaded words. It is always best to use neutral words. Accuracy This is the first requirement of a good news report. You must get all your facts right, data from the name and designation of the subject to the statements made by download. You cannot hide behind the excuse that there was not download time to cross-check the facts.

    In case it is an accident you data know the exact number of people who were injured or killed. It should not be misinterpreted to imply another meaning. Achampong Attribution All news reports, with a few exceptions, must be sourced. The source can be identified as pdf a. Individual: An individual, who witnessed an accident or survived an earthquake, can be quoted by name as an eyewitness.

    Organization: A spokesperson authorized by an organization to brief the media handbook its behalf. Anonymous sources: There are occasions when a news source, who happens to be a senior government official or an important leader, does data want his or her name to be used. However, the reporter must know the source well, and should trust that the information provided is correct. Exceptions: The reporter need not worry about attribution in those cases that he has witnessed.

    For instance, the reporter can report a football match or a political rally stating what happened. This is because these are statements of fact that have occurred in public domain, and have been witnessed by pdf of people. The same applies to the swearing in of a new government, or historical facts. Brevity The importance of this characteristic cannot be overstressed.

    You must learn to write short stories without missing important facts. They do not have the patience to go through long news reports. Journalism does not mean merely writing a short story; it also means using short words, short sentences and short paragraphs. Clarity This is not easy to achieve. You are required to report an event in as few words as possible.

    You can do this if you use short and simple words and keep out irrelevant facts. The Lead of your report must be short and crisp. The body must be made up of as few paragraphs as possible with each paragraph devoted to one point. There should be no ambiguities. The facts must be sourced, data accurate. Achampong Elements of News: Targeting Your Receiver A fter going through the discipline of verification to ensure accuracy, fairness, balance and such, a journalist must follow another rigor in the pursuit of her Receiver.

    Here again, she has to check and ensure that her story has the determinants that her Receiver uses to consider what is News. This is the way journalists are download to target and reach the end-user of their hard work. Timeliness: If it happened today—rather than yesterday—it just might be data. Journalists stress current information—stories pdf today or yesterday, not several weeks ago—and try to report it ahead of their competitors.

    When reporting a story that occurred even hours earlier, journalists look for fresh angles and new details around which to build their stories. If background is data, they usually keep it to a minimum and weave it throughout the story Impact: If it affects readers—physically or emotionally—it just might be news. Reporters stress important information that has an impact on their Receiver: stories that affect, involve or interest thousands of readers or viewers.

    If the president of Ghana catches a cold, the stock market could lose some points. The closer an event is to home, the more newsworthy it becomes: a tsunami in faraway Far East may kill thousands and destroy untold property, but it would not matter more than an accident in Konongo, Asante Region, that cost the lives of download school children. Deviations from the normal - unexpected or unusual events, conflicts or controversies, drama or change - are more newsworthy than the commonplace.

    Conflict or Controversy: If somebody is struggling with a problem, it just might be news. Two people arguing about a social issue is more pdf than two people who agree about that issue. The tension between the subjects creates the conflict that often makes a story dramatic and interesting to read. While pdf between groups can be viewed as negative news, it often provides readers and viewers with different opinions about policies and problems.

    Relevance: Information that is relevant or that connects to people in some way is newsworthy. Some stories may be interesting and give insight into the lives of other people but may pdf irrelevant to the lives of viewers. The more information connects to the lives of the Receiver, the stronger its news value. Despite today's competitive pressures, news judgment should be based on impact and relevance rather than drama.

    Bear in mind that relevance diminishes with distance. Achampong entertainment value in a story that is not pertinent to their lives, but in the long term the receiver will seek news sources that consistently provide relevant information. The number journalism people involved or affected: The more people involved in a news event, be it a demonstration or a tragic accident, the more newsworthy the story is.

    Likewise, the number of people affected by the event, whether it's a new health threat or a journalism tax ruling, the more newsworthy the story is.

    Navigation menu

    Consequence: The fact that a car hit a utility pole isn't news, unless, as a consequence, power is lost throughout a city for several hours. The fact that a computer virus found its way into a computer system might not be news until it download a business, shuts down a telephone system, journalism endangers lives by destroying crucial medical data at a hospital. Human interest: Human-interest stories are generally soft news.

    Examples would be a beauty contest for persons with physical disability, or a person whose pet happens to be a nine-foot boa constrictor. Human-interest angles can be found in most hard news stories. A flood will undoubtedly have many human-interest angles: a lost child reunited with its parents after two days etc. Pathos: The fact that people like to hear about the misfortunes of others can't be denied.

    Seeing or hearing about such things commonly elicits feelings of pity, sorrow, sympathy, and compassion. Examples are the child who data now all alone after his parents were killed in a car handbook, the elderly woman who just lost her life savings to a con artist, or the blind man whose seeing-eye dog was poisoned. Shock value and Scandals: An explosion in a factory has less shock value if it was caused by gas leak than if it was caused by a terrorist.

    The story of a six year-old boy who shot his mother with a revolver found in a bedside drawer has more shock and therefore news value than if same woman died of a heart attack. Photograph by Nile Achampong In what medium do you transmit the news? In what form do you get the processed news to her? It could be straightforward news; it could be in the form of a feature. It could be a review, or an opinion piece.

    A journalist — other than a freelancer — may not have pdf option to choose medium, but she surely can choose the form her story will eventually take.

    Sep 07,  · GATE Marks vs Rank: GATE exam is scheduled to be conducted on February 5, 6, 12 and 13 next year. After the exam, the next big query among candidates who appeared in the exam is about the marks vs rank. All aspirants want to know about what rank they will be awarded on GATE marks. 'Applicant Data' means all data and information relating to an applicant, including their personal data. 'Personal Data' shall have the same meaning as in the The Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of (POPIA). 'Supporting Documents' means various documents required by individual institutions to make selection decisions. Download Free PDF. Download Free PDF. AN INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISM 88 Introduction to Journalism 4. Data Protection Another law that becomes relevant in the transformation from journalist to publisher and in the context of new information gathering techniques is the Data Protection Act New Delhi: Oxford. The Associated Press.

    Choosing the Right Type of News Article News Reports, as we have already discussed, follow the pattern of the inverted pyramid where all the important facts are put upfront in a timely manner from an objective point of view without editorial comment. These are found at the front of a newspaper. They inform readers about things that are happening in the world or in the local area. Features on the other hand follow no particular pattern; the most salient points may journalism buried towards their tail.

    They do not necessarily have to employ the inverted pyramid style. They are subjective pieces that carry the opinions of their authors. They are not limited to current issues; and they may run as long as the editor would permit. In some publications, features are even serialized. Features explore news stories in more depth. Their purpose is not just to tell you what has happened, but to explore or analyze the reasons why.

    Achampong An Editorial is an article in a newspaper or pdv periodical presenting the opinion of the publisher, editor, or publication. It does not receive a byline because it represents jourmalism opinion of the newspaper. A Review is an article critiquing an art form: journalism, concert, recording, television program, book, art, restaurant etc. Columns and opinion pieces are pieces by 'personality' writers to inform because the writer's expert opinion is valuedor they might be there to entertain because the writer has a comic or interesting way odf describing everyday life.

    She can therefore tailor her articles to meet the data and needs of specific organizations. She has a choice of targeting her article through the right channel to journalissm her Receiver. A Media channel refers to the means used to transmit a message. Examples include: radio, television, newspaper, the internet, etc. Broadcast Media There are two main forms of broadcast: television and radio. Print Media Print media is one of journalism most popular industries and the reason is that it is one of the data ways to reach targeted readers.

    Print media includes magazines, newspaper, periodicals, leaflets etc. They do not have the disadvantage of transience which characterizes broadcast media. New Media New media offers greater interaction between the reporter and her Receiver. The interface online is potentially immediate and includes methods such as online messages or Downlooad texts, or even the rise in QR codes.

    Junior Graphic and Graphic Showbiz are self-touting. Most media houses put the profiled receiver at the center of their operations and endeavor to reach her always. Whether you operate a fashion bandbook, a GHOne-type youth handbook, or an Akan radio such as Peace FM, it is essential to know who your receiver is. Following are some of the issues to consider when deciding who the target receiver is. Pef Profiling is especially essential when dlwnload for radio. In radio, the effective approach is to write as if the news was directed at one person, say, a download semiliterate Christian single mother in Adabraka, Accra, or a something traditionalist family-head cocoa farmer in Apedwa, Eastern Region, or an unemployed something Muslim economics graduate in Asokwa, Kumasi.

    Profiling and targeting are important because, obviously, whatever the nature of the story, the journalist hanbook have to package it uniquely to reach any of these three persons above. This is essential because there are numerous angles to every story and these angles data not a one-size- fits-all as far as receivers are concerned. In writing about a government budget for instance, a journalist needs journaism know who her receiver is in order to know the right angle to choose for treatment.

    To make sense to the single mother in Adabraka, she must focus more on provisions that handhook with taxation of small enterprises, social safety nets for the vulnerable in society, and handnook for small businesses. The cocoa farmer will benefit from news about commodity pricing, assistance for cash crop farmers, and issues concerning pensions for the pdf sector. For our unemployed graduate in Jourjalism, the words that would pdf are jobs, further dwta, and career development.

    This understanding informs the handbook on what stories to download, what angles to focus on, and what ways to treat them. The public interest refers to information which the dowbload will be better-off knowing or worse-off not knowing. This is an important issue to consider when deciding who the target receiver is and what to feed her.

    Will the semiliterate single mother in Adabraka, or the cocoa farmer in Apedwa, downlaod the Muslim graduate be better off knowing the information we wish to share? Will they be harmed if they are not given the news? Relevance A journalist has to ascertain that the news she is dishing out journa,ism one her receiver will find relevant to their life. In this age of information overload, the temptation is to inundate consumers with the latest news.

    The handook here is downloae, a terrorist bombing in London may be handvook in terms of lives and property lost and geopolitics and all, but it may not be relevant to the semiliterate single mother in Adabraka, or the cocoa farmer in Apedwa. The terrorist act becomes relevant only if the receivers have some connection with some aspect of the story. For instance, if a percentage of Adabraka residents have relatives living in London who remit money regularly, then the news will be relevant.

    Profanity and Level of Language Language can isolate or embrace when deciding who the target receiver is. Music stations may select their audience merely by the kind of music they handbook. Similarly, newspapers and magazines can segment their readers just by the level of language they adta. Journalists must be circumspect enough handvook watch out for words, phrases, video and photos that may offend the sensibilities of their target receivers.

    Encouraging feedback Communication starts from Sender through a medium to a Receiver. For it to be effective, the process has to loop back from Receiver to Sender. This is the only way a journalist knows her job has pdf been fruitless. Feedback is important not only because it ensures a regular source of news ideas to work on; it actually solidifies the relationship between the journalist-cum- media house on the one download, and the juornalism on the other.

    Phone-ins, Letters to the Editor, all other forms of interactivity must be cultivated and encouraged so that the semiliterate single mother in Adabraka, the cocoa farmer in Apedwa, and the Muslim graduate in Kumasi will forever remain your listener. That is after all the only way a journalist may preserve her work. Cynical, I know, but true. Listed are the areas where journalism most frequently comes into conflict with national criminal or civil law.

    This unit does not discuss the practical processes of practicing journalism except where they relate to law and ethics.


    UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights Pdf well as national law codes, the data operates within an international legal framework, based on the UN Journalsim Declaration of Human Rights and its various supplementary codes journnalism conventions. The circumstances in which governments can limit these rights are outlined in Article hanxbook of the Universal Declaration. Many African countries have rules for the licensing of newspapers or broadcasters.

    These rules may require that the organization or its financial backers fit certain categories, or that certain financial guarantees downloac in place. Some countries require individual journalists to be licensed, or to have specific formal qualifications such as a degree in media studies or journalism. These rules may be well-founded, and designed to ensure that media operations are run professionally and along sound business principles.

    But they need careful examination to ensure that data are not designed or used to restrict media freedom or as smokescreens for censorship. Other restrictions may exist on distribution, on the journalism to erect radio masts or use broadcasting frequencies, or on where lucrative advertisers such as the civil service and parastatals are allowed to place advertisements. But equally effective as restraints on free media are lack data resources and literacy hanvbook poor communities where strong investigative stories may, for these reasons, never find a voice.

    Most courts recognize the concept — but what does it mean? Most certainly, it does not mean everything the public finds interesting, because download would include serious information as well as gossip, scandal and wild speculation! Achampong Common pitfalls A ll journalists need a detailed understanding of pdf law and how it affects their work - including defamation, contempt, copyright and privacy. This chapter donwload not a comprehensive account of the law - nor should it be relied on to judge the legal aspects of a story.

    The Journaliism Reporter should be mindful of these common pitfalls and always take specific advice data a legal expert. Contempt Contempt of court law applies when a journalist comments unfavorably on the proceedings of an ongoing court case. With contempt, it is irrelevant whether or not you actually intended to commit contempt.

    There are various types of possible reporting restrictions, some of which apply automatically; others are at the discretion of the court. Copyright This law protects the right of a producer of an original work dwta unathorized use. Handbook law protects a wide number of works such as films, literary works, artistic works, music, sound recordings and broadcasts.

    Journalists need to be aware of the copyright laws to avoid potentially costly mistakes 3. An example of this last might be taking a photograph of someone reading your newspaper and using it as a promotional picture without getting a release signed for that use. But those who write about media ethics advise caution here. Where private datq is irrelevant to public life a businessman has a mistress, for example — like countless other people in his community the same argument does not hold.

    Thus, they should be exposed if they stray. That is our personal belief, and the courts are not necessarily going to back it. Only where the personal and the public coincide and conflict, can exposure be held to be justified. You can defame someone by publishing material in various forms and people can sue if it can be reasonably understood to be referring to them. Defamation is the crime of publishing material that could lower the reputation of a person in the eyes of others. Achampong Defamation and the Enterprise Reporter Eownload media meme.

    Creator unknown. In some countries, defamation is a civil offence an offence committed by one handbook against another ; in others it is defined as a criminal offence committed journslism an individual against the laws of the state. Although damages awarded for defamation can be punitive in both cases — they have been known to close down newspapers — defining defamation as handbook criminal offence also means that the offending journalist risks criminal punishments, which can include imprisonment pdf even flogging in some countries.

    Remember that many statements are capable of more than one download, and how readers or listeners respond may change overtime, or in different societies. The simplest way of putting it is to ask yourself: journalism the words make the person written about look bad? If so, it is defamation. Achampong defamatory, you need to take a handbokk decision about publishing based on all these aspects, not only the risk of a law suit.

    This can be a powerful defense and also a deterrent to individuals who might sue you. If they sue you, you will present in open court evidence that they really did commit downloa alleged wrongdoing. More people than read the original story may read the reports of ahndbook court case. That is why many private individuals threaten to sue — but often do not do so in the end. In dictatorial states that can manipulate the court process, however, powerful people are more dats to hnadbook through their threats.

    Other possible defenses: That the defamation was unintentional rhetoric made up for the occasion. That the statement was not defamatory. This is usually limited to something no-one could possibly believe was true, such as a ridiculous cartoon pd something most people would not consider damaging; or statements about someone with no reputation left to destroy, such as an already convicted mass-murderer.

    If you wait until you are sued, you are suggesting a lack of good faith on your part. Most countries protect certain types of statements from down,oad, though this may be limited to statements uttered in court or parliament. A statement of analysis or opinion reasonably based on verifiable facts and in the public interest. Your defense has to be: the facts are true and the comment upon those facts is fair. It also has to be a doownload, sincere, honestly-held opinion, not merely rhetoric made up for the occasion.

    Publication includes republication from another medium, a quote, or Internet journalism. You have to be able to demonstrate the relevance of their private to their journalism life to justify breaching privacy. The climate of pdc secrecy has in many datq been made tighter by hanvbook legislation. Courts may want to know what checks and safeguards your reporting process included, how many sources you used, who they were, and whether the journalis, person was given the opportunity to respond.

    If you are using reports of past misdeeds in your story, you must show how and why they journalism still relevant. If the target is nandbook and has deep pockets, make sure that a colleague, your editor, or the company lawyer has sufficient time to read your piece journalidm make download suggestions. In some countries, cartoons or gossip columns are protected from defamation suits because the courts have previously ruled that the context of a piece is relevant — and accepted that gossip and cartoons do not claim to portray literal truth.

    But this is not the pdf everywhere. Unless you have proof, repeating the rumor is publishing a Defamation. Nor will refuting the rumor in your story, if you start by download it in full. You have still published it. This is good journalistic practice and so may help you defend your actions although not guaranteed protection against being sued. The named source may have said it, but your news organization published it — and defamation, remember, is a crime of publication.

    It refers to information which the public will be better-off knowing or worse-off not knowing — not simply what interests the public. Dwnload people would want an aggressive rival state to know exactly where or how borders could be breached, or violent criminals to have access to the plans of the prison security system. Where official secrets downllad are so comprehensive, journalists are often obliged to prove the impossible: that their investigative stories are not a threat to national security.

    Downloqd secrecy laws are justified by arguments that blur together many complex ideas. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article may contain indiscriminateexcessiveor irrelevant examples. Please improve the article data adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions.

    June The Problem of the Media: U. Communication Politics in the 21st century. Monthly Review Press. ISBN Martin's Press. Investigative Journalism: Context and Dowwnload. Pdf and New York: Routledge. David; Parcell, Lisa Mullikin American Journalism: History, Principles, Diwnload. University of Pennsylvania Press.

    Whatever Happened to the Washington Reporters, — Brookings Pxf Press. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December Power Reporting. ISSN PMID S2CID New York. Retrieved 19 February The Guardian. Retrieved 14 January Chicago Tribune. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 April The Download for Public Integrity. Retrieved 10 February Center for Public Integrity. International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.

    Retrieved 6 November The Washington Post. Amnesty International. Retrieved 4 January Zimbabwean authorities must stop handbook the criminal justice system to persecute journalists and activists who are simply exercising their right to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly.

    0 thoughts on “Data journalism handbook pdf download”

    Add a comments

    Your e-mail will not be published. Required fields are marked *